Business industries are experiencing changes in their technologies – mostly towards cloud computing. Cloud computing, defined as a web-based computing model, enables users to instantly share information with other devices and computers. This allows many people to access the same files and data with minimal effort and gives users the opportunity to easily store large amounts of data.Continue reading “Importance of Azure Certification”
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Tuple is a sequence of immutable Python objects. Tuples are sequences, just like lists. The main difference between the tuples and the lists is that the tuples cannot be changed unlike lists. Tuples use parentheses whereas lists use square brackets.
Creating atuple is as simple as puttingdifferent comma-separated values. Optionally, you can put these comma-separated values between parentheses. For eg,
tup1 = (‘physics’, ‘chemistry’, 1997, 2000)
tup2 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
tup3 = “a”, “b”, “c”, “d”
The empty tuple is written as two parentheses containing nothing. tup1 = ();
To create a tuple containing a single value, we have to include a comma even though there is only one value.
tup1 = (50,)
Like string indices, tuple indices start at 0 and they can be sliced and concatenated
Accessing values in Tuples:
tup1 = (‘physics’, ‘chemistry’, 1997, 2000)
tup2 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 )
print (“tup1: “, tup1)
print (“tup2[1:5]: “, tup2[1:5])
To access values in tuple, use the square brackets for slicing along with the index or indices to obtain the value available at that index. For eg,
When the above code is executed, it produces the following result, tup1 : physics
tup2[1:5] : [2, 3, 4, 5]
Tuple Assignment :
>>> a, b = 3, 4
>>> print a 3
>>> print b 4
>>> a, b, c = (1,2,3), 5, 6
>>> print a (1, 2, 3)
>>> print b 5
>>> print c 6
Once in a while, it is useful to perform multiple assignments in a single statement and this can be done with tuple assignment:
>>> a, b, c, d = 1, 2, 3
ValueError: need more than 3 values to unpack
The left side is a tuple of variables; the right side is a tuple of values. Each value is assigned to its respective variable. All the expressions on the right side are evaluated before any of the assignments.
The number of variables on the left and the number of values on the right have to be the same:
Such statements can be useful shorthand for multiple assignment statements, but care should be taken that it does not make the code more difficult to read.
One example of tuple assignment that improves readability is when we want to swap the values of two variables. With conventional assignment statements, we have to use a temporary variable. For example, to swap a and b:
temp = a a = b
b = temp
If we have to do this often, such an approach becomes cumbersome. Python provides a form of tuple assignment that solves this problem neatly:
Tuples as return values :
def swap(x, y):
return y, x
Functions can return tuples as return values. For example, we could write a function that swaps two parameters:
Then we can assign the return value to a tuple with two variables:
a, b = swap(a, b)
def swap(x, y):
x, y = y, x
In this case, there is no great advantage in making swap a function. In fact, there is a danger in trying to encapsulate swap, which is the following tempting mistake:
If we call swap like this swap(a, b)
then a and x are aliases for the same value. Changing x inside swap makes x refer to a different value, but it has no effect on a in main. Similarly, changing y has no effect on b. This function runs without producing an error message, but it doesn’t do what we intended. This is an example of a semantic error.
Basic tuples operations, Concatenation, Repetition, in Operator, Iteration :
Tuples respond to the + and * operators much like strings; they mean concatenation and repetition here too, except that the result is a new tuple, not a string.
In fact, tuples respond to all of the general sequence operations we used on strings in the previous chapter.
|len((1, 2, 3))||3||Length|
|(1, 2, 3) + (4, 5, 6)||(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)||Concatenation|
|(‘Hi!’,) * 4||(‘Hi!’, ‘Hi!’, ‘Hi!’, ‘Hi!’)||Repetition|
|3 in (1, 2, 3)||True||Membership|
|for x in (1,2,3) : print (x, end=’ ‘)||1 2 3||Iteration|
Built-in Tuple Functions :
|SN||Function with Description|
|1||cmp(tuple1, tuple2) No longer available in Python 3.|
|2||len(tuple) Gives the total length of the tuple.|
|3||max(tuple) Returns item from the tuple with max value.|
|4||min(tuple) Returns item from the tuple with min value.|
|5||tuple(seq) Converts a list into tuple.|
Python includes the following tuple functions-
The len() method returns the number of elements in the tuple.
Following is the syntax for len() method- len(tuple)
tuple – This is a tuple for which number of elements to be counted.
This method returns the number of elements in the tuple.
The following example shows the usage of len() method. tuple1, tuple2 = (123, ‘xyz’, ‘zara’), (456, ‘abc’)
print (“First tuple length : “, len(tuple1)) print (“Second tuple length : “, len(tuple2)) First tuple length : 3 Second tuple length : 2
When we run above program, it produces following result-
Tuple max() Method
The max() method returns the elements from the tuple with maximum value.
Following is the syntax for max() method- max(tuple)
tuple – This is a tuple from which max valued element to be returned.
This method returns the elements from the tuple with maximum value.
tuple1, tuple2 = (‘maths’, ‘che’, ‘phy’, ‘bio’), (456, 700, 200) print (“Max value element : “, max(tuple1))
print (“Max value element : “, max(tuple2))
The following example shows the usage of max() method. Max value element : phy Max value element : 700
Tuple min() Method
The min() method returns the elements from the tuple with minimum value.
Following is the syntax for min() method- min(tuple)
tuple – This is a tuple from which min valued element is to be returned.
This method returns the elements from the tuple with minimum value.
tuple1, tuple2 = (‘maths’, ‘che’, ‘phy’, ‘bio’), (456, 700, 200) print (“min value element : “, min(tuple1))
print (“min value element : “, min(tuple2))
The following example shows the usage of min() method.
When we run the above program, it produces the following result- min value element : bio min value element : 200
Tuple tuple() Method Description
The tuple() method converts a list of items into tuples.
Following is the syntax for tuple() method- tuple( seq )
seq – This is a tuple to be converted into tuple.
This method returns the tuple.
The following example shows the usage of tuple() method. list1= [‘maths’, ‘chemistry’, ‘phy’, ‘bio’] tuple1=tuple(list1) print (“tuple elements : “, tuple1)
tuple elements : (‘maths’, ‘chemistry’, ‘phy’,’bio’)
When we run the above program, it produces the following result
To expedite and actualize DevOps process apart from culturally accepting it, one also needs various DevOps tools like Puppet, Jenkins, GIT, Chef, Docker, Selenium, Azure/AWS etc to achieve automation at various stages which helps in achieving Continuous Development, Continuous Integration, Continuous Testing, Continuous Deployment, Continuous Monitoring to deliver a quality software to the customer at a very fast pace.
Tools Required for
- Version Control System
- Configuration management
- Ticketing System
- Resource Monitoring
What is CI and CD
- Continuous integration is a software development practice where developers regularly merge their code changes into a central repository, after which automated builds and tests are run. The key goals of continuous integration are to find and address bugs quicker, improve software quality, and reduce the time it takes to validate and release new software updates.
- Continuous delivery is a software development practice where code changes are automatically built, tested, and prepared for a release to production. It expands upon continuous integration by deploying all code changes to a testing environment and/or a production environment after the build stage. When continuous delivery is implemented properly, developers will always have a deployment-ready build artifact that has passed through a standardized test process.
CI and CD enables agile teams to increase deployment frequency and decrease lead time for change, change-failure rate, and mean time to recovery key performance indicators (KPIs), thereby improving quality and delivering value faster. The only prerequisites are a solid development process, a mindset for quality and accountability for features from ideation to deprecation, and a comprehensive pipeline.
DevOps as a profession – DevOps Engineer
When the company’s management decides to shift to DevOps,
the need arises to train IT department specialists to master certain practices
and use new tools. In this case, either developers or system administrators
need to assume new job responsibilities.
A better alternative
may be hiring a professional with a clear understanding of the DevOps approach
and an ability to set all the necessary processes properly.
After getting software requirements specifications, a DevOps engineer starts setting up the IT infrastructure required for the development. When the IT infrastructure is ready and provided to developers, testers, and other specialists involved in the development cycle, a DevOps engineer ensures that the development and testing environments are aligned with the production environment.
If you ask the DevOps engineer what exactly they do, the answer will likely mention “automation”. What they actually mean is the following:
- Automating software delivery from the testing environment to the production.
- Managing physical and virtual servers and their configurations.
- Monitoring the IT infrastructure’s state and the application’s behavior.
Things to know to become a DevOps engineer
1.Linux and/or Windows Administrator
3.Cloud Management Skills
4.Practical Experience with Containers and orchestration
Below is a more comprehensive list of tools most commonly required to get a job in DevOps:
- Version control systems (Git, Team Foundation Server (TFS), Apache Subversion, etc.).
- Continuous integration tools (Jenkins, Travis CI, TeamCity, and others). ·Software deployment automation platforms (Chef, Puppet, Ansible, etc.).
- Systems monitoring tools (Grafana, Zabbix, Prometheus, and the like).
- Cloud infrastructure (AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Alibaba Cloud, and more).
- Container orchestration tools (such as Kubernetes, Docker Swarm, Apache Mesos, OpenShift, Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS), WS EKS)
DevOps engineers’ average salary in the US is twice as high as that of a system administrator. The reason is quite simple —a competent DevOps engineer can greatly increase the efficiency of software development and operations.
Azure DevOps Features
You can use one or more of the following features based on your business needs:
1.Azure Boards delivers a suite of Agile tools to support planning and tracking work, code defects, and issues using Kanban and Scrum methods.
2.Azure Repos provides Git repositories or Team Foundation Version Control (TFVC) for source control of your code.
3.Azure Pipelines provides build and release services to support continuous integration and delivery of your apps.
4.Azure Test Plans provides several tools to test your apps, including manual/exploratory testing and continuous testing.
5.Azure Artifacts allows teams to share Maven, npm, and NuGet packages from public and private sources and integrate package sharing into your CI/CD pipeines.
Azure DevOps supports adding extensions and integrating with other popular services, such as: Campfire, Slack, Trello, UserVoice, and more, and developing your own custom extensions. Azure DevOps provides extensive integration with industry and community tools. It is far from the closed-off single vendor solution that was the early version of TFS. As noted above, there is a market place which makes hundreds of extensions available, so if Azure Develops doesn’t do something out of the box, odds are a tool exists in the market which does.
To Create an DevOps Account / Organization:
Sign up with a personal Microsoft account
2.Click Start free
3.Either Login with Existing Microsoft Account or Create a New one.
An organization is created based on the account you used to sign in. Sign in to your organization at any time,
Create a Project to get started
- If you signed up for Azure DevOps with a newly created Microsoft account (MSA), your project is automatically created and named based on your sign-in.
- If you signed up for Azure DevOps with an existing MSA or GitHub identity, you’re automatically prompted to create a project. You can create either a public or private project.
- A public Git Hub repository is accessible to everyone, whereas a private repositoryis accessible to you and the people you share it with. In both cases, only collaborators can commit changes to a GitHub repository.
1.Create an outlook ID
2.Activate your Subscription (FREE account or Azure Pass Sponsorship or get owner rights other users subscription)
4.Go to Azure Active Directory and create users firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Invite team members
1.Create couple of outlook ids
2.Use primary email id and visit https://dev.azure.com/.
4.Create a project to get started
a. Project Name = “Demo Project”
b. Description = “For Demo”
c. Visibility = “Private”
d. Expand Advanced, Version Control = Git, Work Item process = “Agile”
e. Create Project
a. Use bread crump and navigate to Organization
b. Select Organization settings.
c. Select UsersàAdd new users.
d. Users = <Email Id of another User), Access level = Basic, Add to project = <project created before>, Azure DevOps Group=Project Contributors
Note: Youwill have to now login as another use and accept the invitation. Do the same in different browser..
Start to Learn Complete Azure DevOps Online